XenApp PowerShell Scripting with Get-XASession

I was working on a PowerShell script in XenApp today to quickly view active sessions by user, server, application, and session duration. Having focused most of my PoSH time in recent years to the XenDesktop SDK, I was somewhat disappointed with the limited flexibility (and official documentation) of the XenApp SDK, specifically with the Get-XASession cmdlet.

My main complaint is that Get-XASession doesn’t have many ‘Required’ parameters, which means that queries are limited to a subset of session details:

Get-XASession

For example, if I want to find all sessions that are ‘Active’, I have to pipe the results of Get-XASession and evaluate each returned object. So, the following pipeline evaluation is required if you wanted to see all active sessions:

Get-XASession | Where-Object { $_.State -match 'Active'}

Using this as a foundation to find Active sessions, I took it a step further by using an input parameter (application name) to list sessions by application, and then formatted the output of the session details to get me what I’m looking for:

param ([String]$app)
foreach ($session in (Get-XASession | Where-Object { 
$_.BrowserName -match $app -and $_.State -match 'Active'} | 
select AccountName, ServerName, LogonTime, ConnectTime, CurrentTime, SessionID | 
Sort-Object LogonTime -Descending))
{
 $logon = (Get-Date) - $session.LogOnTime
 $connect = (Get-Date) - $session.ConnectTime
 "$($session.AccountName) logged on to $($session.ServerName) {0:00}:{1:00}:{2:00}" 
 -f $logon.Hours,$logon.Minutes,$logon.Seconds + " ago."
}

This script returns a active sessions by user name, connected to $app, the server on which it’s running, and the elapsed time (in ascending order) since they logged on (just subtract the $_.LogonTime date/time object from Get-Date). Notice how the $session object is compiled of properties of the sorted Get-XASession output by way of piping the output through several filters, which lets you create your own objects that can be easily manipulated and cross-referenced in the script. I also did some date/time formatting with {0:00}:{1:00}:{2:00}” -f $logon.Hours,$logon.Minutes,$logon.Seconds, though you can present this time duration in any way that makes sense.

Well, I hope this was worth a quick read, have a good weekend!

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XenDesktop 7 Session Launch – Part 2, Enumeration

In my last post I talked about how the Citrix Receiver authenticates to a StoreFront server. In this post, I want to talk about resource enumeration with Citrix Receiver <> StoreFront <> XenDesktop deployments.

Before I go into the technical aspects of the way Citrix enumerates published resources, I want to briefly explain the history behind the Citrix XML Broker, as well as how the Citrix client enumerates published resources. In case anyone is interested in a broader history of Citrix, I encourage you to check out the 20 years of Citrix History publication that was published in 2009.

Citrix NFuse and the XML Portal Server

Back in 2000, Citrix signed a licensing deal with Sequoia Software (whom they later acquired in 2001) to integrate the NFuse as the foundation for providing an extensible application portal for MetaFrame. The XML Portal Server (XPS) technology was then built around NFuse to provide the ability to dynamically enumerate and present resources to end users. This integration was critical in giving Citrix the ability to stand apart from the competition (terminal services), and was the reason the next version of MetaFrame had the XP designation:

xpsnfuse

Since it’s introduction back in 2000, the NFuse protocol has remained at the core of every Citrix desktop/application virtualization product by way of the ‘XML Broker’ service. This service was included in all future releases, including all versions of XenApp & XenDesktop. Until XenDesktop 5 was released, the XML broker service ran as it’s own standalone service. During the XenDesktop ‘Storm’ site architecture rework (now called FMA, aka NOT IMA) the XenDesktop product team decided to relocate the XML broker service to run as a ‘virtual’ service by piggy-backing on the XenDesktop Broker service. Other than this move to virtualize the XML broker service, the service remains as NFuse capable as the XML broker service used in MetaFrame.

Because of the NFuse protocol, resource enumeration has remained compatible as MetaFrame evolved into XenDesktop. In other words, the old MetaFrame Web Interface Server would still enumerate published desktops from a XenDesktop 7 DDC, and a StoreFront 2.0 server would enumerate published applications from a MetaFrame XP XML broker service (theoretically at least!), as long as the requests are NFuse compatible.

One of the main reasons the NFuse protocol is so durable is that it’s able to negotiate capabilities. In this example, a StoreFront site contacts a XenDesktop XML broker to determine what capabilities it has, and what resources are published to the authenticated user:

enumeration

In this process, the web front-end server sends an XML message to the configured XML broker to request a list of capabilities. The XML broker then responds with an XML formatted list of the types of resources it has access to. StoreFront will then request any compatible resources for the the authenticated user account. The XML broker then works with the XenDesktop broker and controller services to find out what resources are assigned to the user. The enumerated resources are consumed by StoreFront and presented to the end user.  This figure from the NFuse Classic 1.7 is still mostly relevant, just different companion components:

nfuse

StoreFront & Receiver

With Citrix Web Interface, the results of application enumeration were presented all at once to the authenticated user (optionally sorted into tabs and/or folders). In other words, all resources published to a user would be shown to them, though you could hide resources as needed. StoreFront with Receiver added the functionality that was originally introduced with Citrix Merchandising Server and Dazzle, which is to allow a user to pick their ‘favorite’ resources, providing Self-Service ‘App Store’ functionality and allowing a user’s favorite resources to follow them across multiple client devices and device types.

Prior to Dazzle/Receiver, applications were either enumerated in a web browser using a Web Interface ‘Web’ site, or enumerated directly by the Citrix client agent through a ‘Services’ site. In the past three years the Citrix client has evolved from the ‘Online Plug-in’ to the Receiver for Windows.

clients

The concept of client-side agent enumeration began with the ‘Program Neighborhood’ client (pre Online Plug-in), which would access a Services site (hence the default name PNAgent), and looked like this:

Program-Neighborhood-12

Until XenApp replaced Presentation Server, this was the way users would typically connect to applications, as the web portal wasn’t nearly as solid as the old WI server running in IE 5/6. By the time XenApp was released, Citrix decided to rework the ‘PNAgent’ to display resources as a system tray icon jump menu (which remains a fan favorite, quick, easy, intuitive) in what was first called the XenApp Plug-in, and later renamed to the Online Plug-in when XenDesktop was released:

DRXDBoth

However, around the time the Apple App Store was released, and Windows Vista changed some application UI design consideration, Citrix decided to create a self-service framework by way of Dazzle and Merchandising Server. As a result of this they decided to do away with the notification icon ‘jump-menu’ since it didn’t align with Microsoft’s general UI design recommendations for Windows Vista/7. When Receiver was launched, this legacy ‘PNAgent’ functionality was taken out of the standard ‘Receiver’, and moved to only be included in the ‘Enterprise’ flavor of the Receiver, which is really just a nice way to say that they’re accommodating ‘Enterprise’ customers who still want/need to use this legacy functionality.

As of Receiver Enterprise (the black icon) PNAgent enumerated shortcuts are only available in the start-menu or desktop (according to the site/farm settings):

PNA

Citrix’s current preferred method of displaying shortcuts to end-users is using Receiver 3/4 to connect to a StoreFront Store, which uses the ‘Dazzle’ framework to present shortcuts:

receiverwindow

The StoreWeb StoreFront site aims to provide the same look and feel for users that aren’t enumerating via the ‘Receiver’ agent:

receiverweb

Connecting from mobile receivers maintains this consistency of favorite resources:

androidreceiver

I could go on and on about the technical details of enumeration, but am out of time for today. I encourage readers to check out my previous post on the XML broker for a technical example of NFuse transactions.

In my next post I go into more detail about how enumerated resources are brokered to the receiver.

XenApp/PVS Global Farm Overview

Since there was a lot of interest in the last Visio I posted, I thought I’d share another.

These diagrams outline high level overviews of a global XenApp w/PVS deployment, with XenApp zones and PVS sites in each datacenter. Each XenApp zone has two data collectors/XML brokers, PVS-Streamed OU-based worker groups. Each geographic region has a corresponding StoreFront Store (directed by host name):

XenAppGlobal

 

The PVS farm configuration is very similar, consisting of sites in each datacenter to stream XenApp workers for each XenApp zone in that datacenter, with the master database homed in the US datacenter:

PVSGlobal

 

The intent of these overviews are mainly to demonstrate how the XenApp and PVS farms interact in a global zone/site architecture. I’ll share some overview diagrams of XenApp zones and PVS sites in another post. Hope you enjoy!

XenDesktop 7 – Environment Test Service

If you’ve had a chance to review the XenDesktop 7 PowerShell SDK documentation, you might have noticed a few new snap-ins that provide the site interactions for the new services included with XenDesktop 7 (as part of the FlexCast Management Architecture). These new snapins are the designated as V1 on the cmdlet help site, and include StoreFront, Delegated Admin, Configuration Logging, Environment Tests, and Monitoring.

Out of these new services, the Environment Test Service sounds the most appealing to me, as it provides a framework to run pre-defined tests and test suites against a XenDesktop 7 site. However, I found that the SDK documentation didn’t provide much/any guidance on using this snap-in, so I thought I’d share a quick rundown on the meat of this new service, along with some sample scripts using the main cmdlets.

The most basic function of this service is to run predefined tests against various site components, configurations, and workflows. As of XD7 RTM, there are 201 individual TestID’s, which can be returned by running the Get-EnvTestDefinition cmdlet:

TestId 
------ 
Host_CdfEnabled 
Host_FileBasedLogging 
Host_DatabaseCanBeReached 
Host_DatabaseVersionIsRequiredVersion 
Host_XdusPresentInDatabase 
Host_RecentDatabaseBackup 
Host_SchemaNotModified 
Host_SnapshotIsolationState 
Host_SqlServerVersion 
Host_FirewallPortsOpen 
Host_UrlAclsCorrect 
Host_CheckBootstrapState 
Host_ValidateStoredCsServiceInstances 
Host_RegisteredWithConfigurationService 
Host_CoreServiceConnectivity 
Host_PeersConnectivity 
Host_Host_Connection_HypervisorConnected 
Host_Host_Connection_MaintenanceMode...

The tests are broken down into several functional groups that align with the various broker services, including Host, Configuration, MachineCreation, etc, and are named as such. For example, the test to verify that the site database can be connected to by the Configuration service is called Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached.

Each test has a description of it’s function, and a test scope that dictates what type of object(s) can be tested. Tests can be executed against components and objects in the site according to the TestScope and/or TargetObjectType, and are executed by the service Synchronously or Aynchronously, depending on their InteractionModel. You can view all of the details about a test by passing the TestID to the Get-EnvTestDefinition cmdlet; for example:

PS C:> Get-EnvTestDefinition -TestId Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached

Description : Test the connection details can be used to 
 connect successfully to the database.
DisplayName : Test the database can be reached.
InteractionModel : Synchronous
TargetObjectType : 
TestId : Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached
TestScope : ServiceInstance
TestSuiteIds : {Infrastructure}

TestSuites are groups of tests executed in succession to validate groups of component, as well as their interactions and workflows. The Get-EnvTestSuite cmdlet returns a list of test suite definitions, and can be used to find out what tests a suite is comprised of. To get a list of TestSuiteIDs, for example, you can run a Get-EnvTestSuite | Select TestSuiteID, which returns all of the available test suites:

TestSuiteId 
----------- 
Infrastructure 
DesktopGroup 
Catalog 
HypervisorConnection 
HostingUnit 
MachineCreation_ProvisioningScheme_Basic 
MachineCreation_ProvisioningScheme_Collaboration 
MachineCreation_Availability 
MachineCreation_Identity_State 
MachineCreation_VirtualMachine_State 
ADIdentity_IdentityPool_Basic 
ADIdentity_IdentityPool_Provisioning 
ADIdentity_WhatIf 
ADIdentity_Identity_Available 
ADIdentity_Identity_State

Each of these suites can be queried using the same cmdlet, and passing the -TestSuiteID of the suite in question. Let’s take DesktopGroup as an example:

PS C:\> Get-EnvTestSuiteDefinition -TestSuiteId DesktopGroup

TestSuiteId         Tests 
-----------                  ----- 
DesktopGroup   Check hypervisor connection, Check connection maintenance mode, Ch...

One thing you’ll notice with the results of this cmdlet is that the list of tests are truncated, which is a result of the default stdout formatting in the PowerShell console. For that reason, my preferred method of looking at objects with large strings (ie descriptions) in PowerShell, is to view them in a graphical ISE (PowerGUI is my preference) and explore the objects in the ‘Variables’ pane.

For example, if you store the results of  Get-EnvTestSuiteDefinition -TestSuiteId DesktopGroup into a variable ($dgtest) in PowerGUI, each Test object that comprises the test suite can be inspected individually:

The DesktopGroup EnvTestSuite object

The DesktopGroup EnvTestSuite object

To start a test task, use the Start-EnvTestTask, passing the TestID or, alternatively, the TestSuiteID, and a target object (as needed). For example:

PS C:> Start-EnvTestTask -TestId Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached

Active : False
ActiveElapsedTime : 11
CompletedTests : 1
CompletedWorkItems : 11
CurrentOperation : 
DateFinished : 9/16/2013 11:33:31 PM
DateStarted : 9/16/2013 11:33:20 PM
DiscoverRelatedObjects : True
DiscoveredObjects : {}
ExtendedProperties : {}
Host : 
LastUpdateTime : 9/16/2013 11:33:31 PM
Metadata : {}
MetadataMap : {}
Status : Finished
TaskExpectedCompletion : 
TaskId : 03f5480d-68e8-410a-9da4-5e65d96ac393
TaskProgress : 100
TerminatingError : 
TestIds : {Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached}
TestResults : {Configuration_DatabaseCanBeReached}
TestSuiteIds : {}
TotalPendingTests : 1
TotalPendingWorkItems : 11
Type : EnvironmentTestRun

Once you know what tests there are, what they do, and what types of results to expect, health check scripts can easily be created using this service. Combinations of tests and test suites can, and should, be leveraged as needed to systematically validate XenDesktop 7 site components and functionality.

I plan on using these cmdlets to some extent in SiteDiag, and expect to get some good use out of this new service in the field. I’m interested to hear from anyone else who’s started using this snap-in, and if they’ve come up with any useful scripts.

NetScaler Gateway VPX v10.1 with StoreFront v2.0 – Encrypt and Theme!

I just finished up on a XenApp 6.5 upgrade where I replaced a single 2008R2 server running a DMZ’d CSG v3.2 SSL-proxied Citrix Web Interface v5.3 ‘Direct’ site with a NetScaler Gateway 10.1 Access Gateway virtual server and a StoreFront v2.0 Store.

This post is meant to share some tips on setting up and customizing a Citrix Receiver <> NetScaler Gateway <> StoreFront deployment. Before I get into the thick of it, I thought I’d share the following high-level topology of the environment I was working with:

XenApp65_SharedHostedDesktopDelivery

This scenario consists of WAN-connected Citrix Receivers accessing the XenApp farm via a NetScaler Gateway Access Gateway VPN fronted StoreFront Store. The NetScaler Gateway Access Gateway virtual server provides AD-auth via an LDAP Authentication policy, and replaces the SSL-Proxied ICA & HTTP traffic that the Secure Gateway server previously handled (EOL’d since ‘06!, yet running on Win2008R2??). The NG-AG virtual server also acts as the landing page for web browsers, and as such has it’s own visual style that can (and SHOULD) be customized. Receiver connections are passed through to the Store virtual directory, and all other connections (web browsers) are directed to the StoreWeb virtual directory.

One major consideration I found in this topology is that if your StoreFront ‘Store’ is not SSL-encyrpted, Citrix Receiver for Windows 3.1 and later will not work without tweaking a few client-side registry values (see CTX134341), even though the NetScaler Gateway session is encrypted. That said, a resultant consideration of securing the StoreFront site is that you need to be sure that the NetScaler trusts the StoreFront server’s SSL certificate.

To do this you need to install any of the StoreFront server’s certificate chain certs on the NetScaler (here’s a good Citrix blog on the topic) and make sure the Access Gateway session policy profile’s ‘Web Interface Address’ uses the same name that the StoreFront server’s certificate was issued to, and that the NetScaler can resolve the name via DNS. The other pieces of getting this setup working are pretty easy, thanks mostly in part to the foolproof NetScaler Gateway setup wizard (eDocs link), and StoreFront’s ‘Add NetScaler Gateway Appliance’ wizard (eDocs). As long as your SSL is working properly, this is a fairly painless install.

Once I got the site up and running, I immediately wanted to customize the NetScaler Gateway VPN web interface to make it look like the StoreWeb site that browser users are redirected to. Out of the box, the NG-AG site is themed with the old (boring) CAG visual style, which is themed to look like the old WI 5.0-5.3 black & blue sites. Since this page is proxying and for the StoreFront site, is makes for a very awkward, time-machinish, experience to login to the black and blue site, and land in StoreFront’s newer green bubble land!

I didn’t look hard to find Jeff Sani’s blog article that I’ve referenced many times before, which provides step-by-step instructions on applying the StoreFront look and feel to a NetScaler’s Access Gateway. After running through this, I decided to change the the logo and background, and referenced Terry D’s blog on customizing a StoreFront site by way of custom CSS. I used WinSCP and PuTTY to make the changes, and pretty quickly had a nice looking landing page to front the StoreFront Store:

CustomLandingPage

I then did the same on the StoreFront server using NotePad++, and was able to give the customer a customized and consistent look and by adding the following custom.style.css to the c:\inetpub\wwwroot\Citrix\StoreWeb\contrib folder of the StoreFront server:

body { background-image: url("custom.jpg");
  background-color: #262638;}
#credentialupdate-logonimage, #logonbox-logoimage 
{ background-image: url("custom.png");
  width: 180px;
  height: 101px;
  right: 63%;}
#.myapps-name 
{ font-weight: bold; color: #000; }

CustomStoreFrontWeb

Well, that’s about all the time I have for today. I hope someone finds this post helpful in producing a functional, and visually consistent, NetScaler Gateway fronted StoreFront deployment!

XenDesktop Session Launch Hypervisor Interactions

I got an email recently asking if I knew whether or not a XenDesktop site takes a hosting unit’s load or availability into consideration when brokering session launch requests, especially reconnects to desktops that were ‘In Use’ when a host goes down. This question was posed in the context of Desktop Groups with catalogs that are spread across multiple hosting units.

The simple answer to this question is no. XenDesktop’s interactions with the hypervisor (via the Hypervisor Abstaction Layer) were always intended to be used for power action/status, and MCS/PVS related cloning activities. When a XenDesktop site selects a ‘worker’ to fulfill a session launch request, it only looks at the worker’s registration status, and not that of the host that the worker guest VM is running on.

That said, the selection process for the next available worker is determined via stored procedures. To find out what the ‘next available’ worker is going to be in a XenDesktop 5.x site, you can run following T-SQL against the database, specifying the Desktop Group UID in the first line:

declare @DesktopGroupUid int = 1
declare @Readiness int = 3
declare @Uid int

 update Top(1) chb_State.Workers
 set @Uid = W.Uid
from chb_State.Workers W
            with (readpast,
                  index(IX_Workers_DesktopGroupUid_Usage_DynamicSequence))
         where DesktopGroupUid = @DesktopGroupUid
           and LaunchReadiness >= @Readiness
           and SinBinReleaseTime is null;select * from chb_State.WorkerNames
where Uid = @Uid
go

This script will return the name of the machine that the site will use to satisfy the next pooled-random session launch request to the specified desktop group, and doesn’t care what’s going on with the hosting unit where the worker lives. The site is only concerned with the worker’s registration state, and could care less if the power state of the VM is On, Off, or Unknown, much less does it care about the load of the hosting unit where that machine is running.

To that point, if a worker continues to register when a hosting unit connection becomes inaccessible (vCenter is down, but not the ESX host, for example), the desktop will still be available for session launch, but not for power management. This scenario can cause problems, such as ‘tainted’ workers that don’t get powered off after use, and end up in the unfortunate sounding ‘SinBin’. This process is only temporary, and is only corrected after the machine is rebooted by the XenDesktop site (check out the CTX article I wrote for more info).

As far as a scenario where a session was ‘In Use’ when the host goes down, the broker reaper site service will eventually clean up the failed worker when the ‘DDC Ping’ times out (controlled by the ‘HeartbeatPeriodMs’ value on the DDC running the reaper service). So, by default, you could potentially get into a situation where reconnects for ‘In Use’ session will keep selecting the failed worker until the reaper cleans it up. While this shouldn’t take longer than 5 minutes with the default heartbeat value, it may cause problems if there are frequent outages or service interruptions between geographically dispersed datacenters.

To work around the ~5 minute functionality gap of hosting unit availability awareness, as it relates to session launch anyways, one could easily trigger a XenDesktop PoSH script in the event of an outage (and the reverse when the outage is recovered) to toggle the ‘maintenance mode’ flag on any workers on a failed host. I’d like to hope that the XenDesktop product team has at least considered the potential for expanding the site’s visibility into the status of a guest VM’s host, and would love to see ‘smarter’ brokering logic such as thing in future releases.

XenDesktop 7 – First Thoughts

Citrix hosted an amazing event last week, and outlined a distinct roadmap of their 2013 strategy. They placed a strong emphasis on mobility with some updates to their Zenprise acquisition (XenMobile, aka Worx), and announced the first implementation of Project Avalon in the form of ‘XenDesktop 7’. Since I’ve spent a lot of time with XenDesktop (both IMA and Storm based) and XenApp, I thought I’d share my general impression of XenDesktop 7 as it relates to achieving the goals set forth by Avalon.

First off, the unification of XenDesktop and XenApp was a necessary evil based on Citrix’s decision to combine the management and provisioning of  ‘desktops’ & ‘servers’ (SBC and VDI) within the same console. Through what Citrix is calling the ‘FlexCast Management Architecture’ (Storm+RDS), they are replacing ‘IMA’, which was used for all versions of XenApp, as well as XenDesktop versions prior to Rhone (Barossa, Sonoma, Rioja, Bordeaux, Medoc, etc.).

This change is a great move in terms of farm design, scalability, and stability. In my opinion, the Storm framework is easier to install, troubleshoot, and support than IMA (written in .NET, readable database, excellent SDK, better logging, etc), and should be familiar to anyone who has worked with XenDesktop 5.x. The site is just as dependent on availability of the central database as in XD5 (no local host cache), which means no zones, data collectors, or any other sort of ‘master’ server (the database is the master). All of the same ICA/HDX functionality is still there (plus any new additions), as is the policy engine and brokering functionality.

I’m not too fond of the licensing model which provides published Windows client OS in the least expensive edition, whereas Windows server OS requires a more expensive license. I suppose that’s representative of Citrix choosing to call Excalibur XenDesktop instead of XenApp, though I never really thought of this distinction since I assumed it was called XenDesktop because they used the Storm site architecture (now called FMA). I’m also concerned about feature parity with XenApp, and am sure there will be more than a few features that either don’t live up to XenApp, or just aren’t there yet.

At the end of the day I’m excited about XenDesktop 7, as it provides an easier product to sell. There’s no more worrying about whether or not you need to publish apps from Windows client or server OS (besides the licensing), and all of the management and provisioning (except for Provisioning Services :)) is done in a central console. The new Director looks fantastic, and the refreshed Studio is much more responsive and elegant than that of XenDesktop 5. Also, my SiteDiag tool (Site Checker v2.0) was designed to run on the Excalibur tech preview, and I’ll be sure to get it working for XenDesktop 7 once its released.

I get the feeling that the rest of the Citrix community is generally as excited about XenDesktop 7 as I am, but I guess we’ll see how it plays out once we start implementing it!